Characteristics of An Effective EFL Teacher in Indonesia: Expectations and Realities in A Technology-Enhanced Flipped Classroom

Arif Husein Lubis, Didin Samsudin


Previous literature has articulated the contributing role of personality more than teaching competence to be an effective EFL teacher. However, the ideal qualities of an effective EFL teacher in a technology-enhanced flipped English classroom are not much revealed. This paper seeks to compare the ideal teacher’s attitudes and teaching styles with the teacher’s actual practices in a technology-enhanced flipped English classroom from the students’ perceptions. Eighty-three Indonesian undergraduate EFL students majoring in information technology participated in this research. A questionnaire with a checklist and open-ended items was filled out after the students accomplished a 16-week English course. The results showed that an effective EFL teacher in a technology-enhanced flipped English classroom should possess and exemplify the attitudes of patience, friendliness, and niceness, as perceived by the students. Most students also envisaged that an effective EFL teacher in such a learning context can use various, innovative, easy-to-follow methods and employ English and Indonesian alternately. The realities generally accorded with the students’ expectations. More students favored the use of various kinds of instructional technology by the teacher. However, the teacher was less favored for being too serious, not being open to students, giving unclear instructions for doing the assignments, and giving less guidance to use the educational technology


attitudes, effective EFL teacher, realities, teaching styles, technology-enhanced flipped classroom

Full Text:



Al-Khairi, M. (2015). Qualities of an ideal English language teacher: A gender-based investigation in a Saudi context. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(15), 88-98.

Anthony, L. (2018). AntConc. Retrieved from

Babai, Shishavan, H., & Sadeghi, K. (2009). Characteristics of an effective English language teacher as perceived by Iranian teachers and learners of English. English Language Teaching, 2(4), 130-143.

Barnes, B. D. (2010). The attributes of effective lecturers of English as a foreign language as perceived by students in a Korean university. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 139-152.

Borg, S. (2006). The distinctive characteristics of foreign language teachers. Language Teaching Research, 10(1), 3-31.

Brown, D. (2001). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. New York: Addison Wesley.

Çelik, S., Arikan, A., & Caner, M. (2013). In the eyes of Turkish EFL learners: What makes an effective foreign language teacher? Porta Linguarum, 20, 287-297.

Chen, J. (2012). Favorable and unfavorable characteristics of EFL teachers perceived by university students of Thailand. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(1), 213-219.

Chen, Y-J., & Lin, S-C. (2009). Exploring characteristics for effective EFL teachers from the perceptions of junior high school students in Tainan. STUT Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2, 219-249.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: McMillan.

Fang (Gabriel), F., & Liu, Y. (2020). ‘Using all English is not always meaningful’: Stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of and attitudes towards translanguaging at a Chinese university. Lingua, 247, 1-18.

Guru dan Dosen [Teachers and Lecturers] 2005 number 14 (Indonesia).

Hawkins, S. J. (2015). Guilt, missed opportunities, and false role models: A look at perceptions and use of the first language in English teaching in Japan. JALT Journal, 37(1), 29-42.

Hsieh, J. S. C., Wu, W. V., & Marek, M. W. (2016). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1–2), 1–21.

Huang, Y. N., & Hong, Z. R. (2016). The effects of a flipped English classroom intervention on students’ information and communication technology and English reading comprehension. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(2), 175–193.

Korthagen, F. A. J. (2004). In search of the essence of a good teacher: Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 77-97.

Kourieos, S., & Evripidou, D. (2013). Students’ perceptions of effective EFL teachers in university settings in Cyprus. English Language Teaching, 6(11), 1-16.

Liando, N. V. F. (2010). Students’ vs. teachers’ perspectives on best teacher characteristics in EFL classrooms. TEFLIN Journal, 21(2), 118-136.

Meshkat, M., & Hassani, M. (2012). Demotivating factors in learning English: The case of Iran. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 745-749.

Park, C. N., & Son, J-B. (2009). Implementing computer-assisted language learning in the EFL classroom: Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 5(2), 80-101.

Salahshour, N., & Hajizadeh, N. (2013). Characteristics of effective EFL instructors. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 163-173.

Standar Nasional Pendidikan Tinggi [National Higher Education Standard] 2020 number 3 (Indonesia).

Standar Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan [Standards for Educators and Educational Staff] 2018 number 34 (Indonesia).

Taqi, H. A., Al-Nouh, N. A., & Akbar, R. S. (2014). English Language Teaching, 7(3), 121-133.

Tsai, Y. (2019). Promotion of learner autonomy within the framework of a flipped EFL instructional model: perception and perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–32.

Turan, Z., & Akdag-cimen, B. (2019). Flipped classroom in English language teaching: a systematic review. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–17.

Webb, Marie, & Doman, E. (2020). Impacts of flipped classrooms on learner attitudes towards technology-enhanced language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(3), 240–274.

Zhang, R., & Zou, D. (2020). Types, purposes, and effectiveness of state-of-the-art technologies for second and foreign language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–47.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics) by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Abstracting and Indexing



Contact Us: IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics;

Address: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris Samarinda

Jl. H.A.M. Rifadin, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Email: