Thinking Maps to Promote Critical Thinking through the Teaching of Literature in the ESL Context

Ainon Omar, Intan Safinas Mohd. Ariff Albakri

Abstract


The Malaysian education system has emphasized on the importance of producing students as thinking individuals in order to survive in the global era today. The i-Think program which was introduced in schools consists of eight cognitive teaching tools known as thinking maps that teachers can use to mediate students’ thinking, learning, and promote metacognitive behaviours in their lessons. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to determine whether the teachers’ implementation of the Thinking maps promoted critical thinking during the teaching of Literature in the ESL classroom.  This case-study was conducted in a secondary school which was one of the pioneer schools selected by the Ministry of Education to implement the thinking maps in the teaching and learning of English language. Data were collected through observations, interviews and field notes. The findings revealed that the teachers were able to engage students to think critically through the use of the thinking maps during their literature lessons. The teachers also employed the Reader-Response strategies to complement the thinking maps in promoting critical thinking in the teaching of literature.

Keywords


i-Think program, critical thinking skills, English literature, thinking maps

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amin Senin (2013). Creating knowledgeable students through critical thinking. Retrieved from news@nst.com.my

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectivist. New York: Longman.

Bassham,G., Irwin, W., Nardone, H. & Wallace, J.M. (2007). Critical Thinking: A Student’s Introduction (5th Ed). New York: McGraw Hill International Edition.

Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Gardner

Chiang, M. (2007). Improved reading attitudes and enhanced English reading comprehension via literature circles. Lagos Papers in English Studies, 1(1), 168-183

Chittooran, M. M. (2015). Reading and writing for critical reflective thinking. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, (143), 79-95.

Connor-Greene P. A., Greene D. J. (2002). Science or snake oil? Teaching critical evaluation of “research” reports on the Internet. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 321–324

Costa, A. (2001). Developing minds. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Curriculum Development Center. (2003). Curriculum specifications for English. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Emerson, M. K. (2013). A Model for Teaching Critical Thinking. Online Submission. Available at: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED540588 (Retrieved on Dec 23, 2015).

Erkaya. O.R. (2005). Benefits of Using Short Stories in the EFL Context. Asian EFL Journal. Volume 8, 1 – 13

Fauziah, F. (2016). The Approaches to Teaching Literature for EFL Young Learners. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 1(2), 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v1i2.26

Galda, L., & Liang, L. A. (2003). Reading as experience or getting the facts? Stance and literature in classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(2), 268-275.

Garzón,E. & Castañeda-Peña, H. (2015). Applying the Reader-Response Theory to Literary Texts in EFL-Pre-Service Teachers’ Initial Education. Canadian Center of Science and Education 8(8), 187-198

Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices. Retrieved on 2 December 2015 from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/research

Heijltjes, A., Gog, T. V., & Paas, F. (2014). Improving Students’ Critical Thinking: Empirical Support for Explicit Instructions Combined with Practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology. Available at: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com (Retrieved on Dec 24, 2015)

Hyerle, D. (2009). Visual tools for transforming information into knowledge (2nd ed.).

Hyerle, D. (2000). A Field Guide to Using Visual Tools, ASCD, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Hyerle, D. (2012). Student successes with thinking maps. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Khatib, S. (2011). Applying the reader-response approach in teaching English short

stories to efl students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 151-159.

Kuh, G. D. (2001). Assessing What Really Matters To Student Learning: Inside The National Survey of Student Engagement, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 33, (3): 131-137.

Lazar, G (1993). Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 180 – 185 in

Ministry of Education, Malaysia. (2013). Malaysia Education Blue-print 2013: Preliminary Report 2013-2025. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://www.moe.gov.my/en/pelan-pembangunan-pendidikan-malaysia-2013-2025

Nooraini Othman & Khairul Azmi Mohamad (2014). Thinking Skill Education and Transformational Progress in Malaysia. Journal of International Education Studies; Vol. 7, No. 4. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Press.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Odenwald, K. (2010). Transforming liberal education through the imagination: Critical creative thinking in higher education curriculum and pedagogy. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (305185666).

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007). Critical thinking concepts and tools (5th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Ponniah, R. J. (2007). A Constraint for Integrating Critical Thinking Skills Into Indian ESL Classrooms. Language in India. Vol. 7 Issue 7, p2-2. 1p.

Ruggiero,V.R.(2007). The Art of Thinking. (8th ed). Boston:Pearson Education, Inc.

Saraceni, M (2007). Literature in the EFL Classroom : Roses or Thorns? in Teaching of Literature in ESL/ EFL Context. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia : Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.

Stern, S. L. (2001). An integrated approach to literature in ESL/EFL. In Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign Language (pp. 328-345). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Tucker, L.P (2000). Liberating Students through Reader-Response Pedagogy in the Introductory Literature Course. Copyright by the National Council of Teachers of English : 199 – 209

Weimer, M. (2003). “Focus on learning, transform teaching”. Change 35 (5), 48 (7). Retrieved December 4, 2015, from Expanded Academic database.

Zabani, D. (n.d.). Status Pencapaian Malaysia Dalam TIMSS dan PISA: Satu Refleksi Dr Zabani Bin Darus KPM 2012.Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://education.um.edu.m...201/(1) Dr Zabani.pdf

Zaker, Alireza. (2016). Literature and Creativity in an ELT Context. ASIAN TEFL, 1(2), 2016




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21093/ijeltal.v1i1.6

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License
IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics) by http://ijeltal.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

Abstracting and Indexing

                  



Contact Us: IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics; Address: FTIK, IAIN Samarinda; Jl. H.A.M. Rifadin, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Email: ijeltalj@gmail.com